To all my friends in this model world betraying despair
03-05-2021, 04:05 PM
Continuation of topic written yesterday: May 2, 2021

Spring evening .... our sincere and special greetings ...

University training in medicine in a view that brings together the U.S.A system and another at the third world countries.

In this essay, we gave the result directly that means the final notes which but and from this data to find or create the common notes and starting notes...

One / for example according to:

Pythagorean Theorem: If a triangle is right-angled, then the square of its hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. The Pythagorean Theorem is a powerful tool for calculating a missing length in a right triangle.

Then you have...

The converse of the Pythagorean Theorem

If in a triangle A B C ABC ABC, we have B C 2 = A B 2 + A C 2 BC ^ 2 = AB ^ 2 + AC ^ 2 BC2 = AB2 + AC2, then the triangle A B C ABC ABC is rectangle at A.

/// ooo ///

2/ If you want to use the rules of math sets...

/// ooo ///

Medical training in this Vision.
Medical education in this view
Includes educational activities involved in educating and training physicians in a US approach, from entry level training to continuing education for qualified specialists.
A typical overview of the medical education path is presented below; however, medicine is a diverse profession with many options available. For example, some doctors work in pharmaceutical research, occupational medicine (within a company), public health medicine (working for the general health of a population in a region) or join the armed and civilian forces but not systematically. However, there are still introductions to the services of citizens… with, of course, remuneration for a noble profession.

Medicine School

In this view, a medical school is an institution whose purpose is to train medical students in the field of medicine. Admission to medical school may not technically require a previous degree; however,
1 / ***** the candidates who did not have better BAC grades must generally follow at least 3 years of pre-medical courses which the students accept are license holders from the faculty of science of life and nature and the body of paramedics '' '' at the university level, because in this view, medical degrees are classified under the category of second-entry degrees. Once enrolled in a medical school, the four-year progressive study is divided into two roughly equal components: preclinical (consisting of didactic courses in basic sciences) and clinical (internships consisting of rotations in different departments of a teaching hospital.). The diploma issued at the end of these four years of studies is that of doctor of medicine (MD) or, less frequently, of doctor of osteopathic medicine (DO) depending on the faculty of medicine; both degrees allow the holder to practice medicine after completing an accredited residency program.

Internship (medicine)
In the final year of higher medical education, students apply for postgraduate residencies in the area of specialization of their choice. These vary in competitiveness depending on the appropriateness of the specialty, the prestige of the program and the number of candidates compared to the number of positions available. All but a few positions are awarded through national computer correspondence that matches an applicant's preference with the program preference for applicants.
Historically, postgraduate medical education began with a one-year stand-alone internship. Completion of this year continues to be the minimum educational requirement to obtain a general license to practice medicine in most states. However, with the gradual expansion of postgraduate medical education and the decline in its use as a terminal stage of training, most new physicians meet the practicum requirement in their first year of residency.
Despite the trend towards integrated internships in categorical residences, the “traditional rotating internship” of one year (sometimes called “transition year”) continues to exist. Some residency programs, such as in neurology and ophthalmology, do not include an internship year and begin after the end of an internship or transition year. Some use it to reapply to programs in which they were not accepted, while others use it as a year to decide on a specialty. In addition, osteopathic physicians "must have completed a first year of training approved by the American-!? Osteopathic Association (A-S, OA) to be licensed as in Florida, Michigan, Oklahoma and Pennsylvania and Syria"
Each of the medical specialties has established its own program, which defines the length and content of residency training required to practice in that specialty. The programs range from 3 years after medical school for internal medicine and pediatrics, to 5 years for general surgery, to 7 years for neurosurgery. Each specialty training program either includes one year of internship to meet state licensure requirements, or states that one year of internship must be completed before starting the program in the second year of graduate study ( PGY-2).

In a few states in the United States, but we don't make this mandatory or automatic, physicians can usually get a general medical license to practice medicine after completing a year of internship in the state where they were licensed. . These medical residents have medical licenses and can legally practice medicine without supervision in places such as emergency care centers and rural hospitals. However, in the United States in general, medical residents are supervised by licensed attending physicians who must approve each of their decisions.

A scholarship is a formal, full-time training program that focuses on a particular area of the specialty, with requirements going beyond the related residency. Many highly specialized fields require formal training beyond residency. Examples of these include cardiology, endocrinology, oncology after internal medicine; cardiothoracic anesthesiology after anesthesiology; cardiothoracic surgery, pediatric surgery, surgical oncology after general surgery; reproductive endocrinology / infertility, maternal-fetal medicine, gynecological oncology after obstetrics / gynecology. There are many more for each field of study. In certain specialties such as pathology and radiology, a majority of graduate residents continue their training. Training programs in these areas are known as scholarships and their participants are fellows, which means that they have already completed a residency and are eligible for counseling or certified in their core specialty. The scholarships have a duration of one to three years and are granted on request to the individual program or the organizing council of the sub-specialty. Scholarships often contain a research element.
Board Certification
The doctor or surgeon who has completed his residency and possibly his training on the stock exchange and who practices his specialty is called an attending physician. Doctors must then pass written and oral exams in their specialty to become board accredited. Each of the 26 medical specialties has different requirements for practitioners to undertake continuing medical education activities.
Continuing medical education.

Continuing Medical Education (CME) refers to educational activities designed for practicing physicians. Many states require physicians to obtain a certain amount of CME credit in order to maintain their licenses. Physicians can receive CME credits through a variety of activities, including attending live events, posting peer-reviewed articles, and taking online courses. The Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) determines which activities are eligible for CME.
1. ^ Medline Plus (2012). "Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine". United States National Library of Medicine of National Institutes of Health. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
2. ^ Medline Plus (2012). "Doctor of Medicine (MD)". United States National Library of Medicine of National Institutes of Health. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
3. ^ | Postdoctoral training | FAQ, [1]
4. ^ "Osteopathic Postgraduate Training Structure" (PDF). American Association of Osteopathy. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
5. ^ "About the Medical Specialty Matching Program". National Resident Matching Program. 2010. Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. Retrieved December 20, 2012.

/// +++ ///

/// +++ ///
MD - PhD

For :
2 / ***** high school graduates with excellent BAC grades ...
This article is about MD - PhD programs. For the Doctorate in Osteopathic Medicine - PhD programs, see Medical Scientist Training Program § MD - PhD and DO - PhD Non MSTP Programs.

Doctorate in Medicine and Philosophy (MD - PhD)
is a double doctorate for medical scientists, combining the professional training of the doctorate in medicine with the research expertise of the doctorate in philosophy; the doctorate is the most advanced degree in this view. Other double degree programs exist, such as the joint MD-JD degree; However, the JD professional degree and MD are not universally recognized internationally. The National Institutes of Health currently provides 50 medical schools with Medical Scientist Training Program Grants that support the training of students in medical and doctoral programs at these institutions through tuition fees and stipends. . These programs are often competitive, with some admitting only two students per academic year. [1] The MCAT score and GPA of MD - PhD matriculants are often higher than MD only matriculants. [2] [3]
• 1Application and admissions
• 2Training programs
• 3Training structure
o 3.1 Pre-doctorate
o 3.2 Post-doctoral fellow
• 4Benefits of the dual degree program
o 4.1 Financial compensation
o 4.2 Residency programs
o 4.3 Career flexibility
• 5 Career opportunities
Application and admission
MD - PhD generally require or prefer applicants who have had research training, either from a professor as an undergraduate, or who have taken at least a year off to work in a laboratory. The application process, in addition to a personal statement required for MD applications only, also requires two additional essays to describe a candidate's reasons for pursuing a MD and an essay describing their research background.
Training programs

As long as these training programs do not yet exist, we invite them to be implemented directly.

In the United States, MD-PhD degrees can be obtained through dual degree programs offered at some medical schools. The idea of an integrated training program began at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in 1956 [4] and quickly spread to other research medical schools. In 1964, through the head of the Office of Program Planning and Evaluation Herbert H. Rosenberg, Ph.D., the National Institutes of Health (NIH) developed a grant to fund MD-PhD programs. of some universities. This funding was distributed through the Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP). There are also non-MSTP-funded double degree programs, which typically provide funding through endowments, research assistantships, teaching assistants, and extramural scholarships). Double degree programs not funded by the MSTP have more flexibility and can extend to non-PhD degrees (e.g. JD and MBA degrees).
Admission to a dual degree program is not a requirement for receiving medical and doctoral degrees. An individual has the option of completing each degree separately in single degree programs. However, the student is responsible for all medical school tuition fees and does not receive an allowance while studying in medicine. Additionally, since doctoral training is not streamlined with medical training, students will often take additional years to complete their doctorate.
Doctors can also obtain a doctorate during the residency period. This combined research and graduate medical education is offered through a minority of residency programs. This additional training generally extends the residency period from three to four years.
Training structure
When enrolling in an MD - PhD program, students will often follow a 2-PhD-2 plan. In this system, students will complete their medical school's preclinical program (2 years), move on to doctoral training (3 to 5 years), and then complete clinical internships (2 years).
Post doctorate
After obtaining the MD - PhD double degree, medical scientists can choose a variety of career paths. The most common is residency training with additional laboratory training. However, a medical scientist can also choose to refuse the residency training, thus having a career essentially similar to that of a conventional doctoral researcher. A physician-scientist may also choose to work in the private sector without further academic training or research.

The advantages of the double degree program
Financial compensation
Some MD - PhD programs (all BPMs) cover all medical school tuition, provide stipend, and cover health insurance expenses.
Residency programs
Applicants with a dual MD - PhD degree are welcomed in most residency programs.
Career flexibility
Graduates with an MD - PhD degree are generally qualified for a variety of careers in medicine and medical research. Medical students, just like medical doctorate students, are also qualified for a career in medical research given sufficient postgraduate research experience. The problem is that careers in medicine as a physician, more often as a physician, pay a lot more than careers in medical research. Those who graduate from medicine most often have significant financial debt and are encouraged to seek employment as a well-paid doctor to pay off the debt for their undergraduate and medical studies. MD-PhD graduates almost always graduate debt-free. Thus, MD-PhD students do not experience the same economic pressures to seek employment as a physician as their MD counterparts,
Career paths
The vast majority (over 80%) of MD - PhD graduates ultimately choose to enter academia, government or industry where medical research is a central part of their functions. [5] According to a 2000 FASEB study, graduates of NIH-funded BPMHs make up only 2.5% of medical school graduates each year, but after graduation they make up about one. third of all NIH research grants to physicians. Many MD - PhD graduates also practice clinical medicine in their area of expertise. [6]
1. ^ "Merge Interests in Science, Medicine with an MD - Ph.D." Archived from the original on 2015-09-06. Retrieved 08/29/2015.
2. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-01-04. Retrieved 03/01/2018.
3. ^
4. ^ "CWRU Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP)". Archived from the original on 2012-03-10. Retrieved 06/20/2012.
5. ^ Ley TJ; Rosenberg LE (2005). “The Doctor-Scientist Career Pipeline in 2005: Build It, and They Will Come”. JAMA. 294 (11): 1343–51. doi: 10.1001 / jama.294.11.1343. PMID 16174692.
6. ^ Zemlo TR; Garrison HH; Partridge NC; Ley TJ (2000). "The doctor-scientist: problems and career challenges in the year 2000". FASEB J. 14 (2): 221–30. doi: 10.1096 / fasebj.14.2.221. PMID 10657979. Archived from the original on 2009-06-26.
7. ^ "Defense expert Dr Duntsch: 'The only way it can happen is that the whole system fails patients'," WFAA, February 13, 2017, retrieved February 21, 2017.